History of the Campaign of 1866 in Italy
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The Austrian Army in the Campaign of : Stuart Sutherland :
Kitty Kain. Bernard Freyberg. Geoffrey Cox. Michael Joseph Savage. Peter Fraser. See 1 more related biography The Royal New Zealand Navy.
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Yet this momentous alteration in the international equilibrium was accomplished so swiftly that…. The Italian government of Alfonso La Marmora, under the terms of an alliance with Prussia, attacked Austrian-held Venetia when Prussia attacked Austria from the north, but the Italians met defeat both on land at…. History at your fingertips. The wars of liberation had been expensive. The loans organized in France had to be repaid. Much infrastructure for a united state had to be created: public buildings in Rome, the new capital, a navy, a unified army, and an educational system, to name a few.
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Italy was poor, since its establishment in the Italian kingdom had experienced great difficulty in balancing its budgets and the liberal, Piedmontese, administrators of the Kingdom of Italy insisted on financial responsibility. In the south there was much brigandage and insurrection and in Sicily the Italian government was probably as unpopular as that of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies had been.
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In efforts to balance the books taxes were raised on salt and tobacco and more tellingly, as far as the poor were concerned, the tax on milling grain, the Macinato, which had been introduced into Piedmont by Quintino Sella in was now applied to the entire realm. Taxes were levied on mules, the omnipresent beast of burden of the peasantry, whilst horses and cows usually owned by landowners were not similarly taxed.
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There were many instances of serious rioting entered into against the economic policies being followed by the Italian royal administration. In cases the battle-cry of the economically distressed rioters was "long live the Pope and Austria". The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was not proving to be a straightforward affair. Newly united Italy experienced a wave of mass emigration as distressed poor people sought new and better lives in the United States and elsewhere.
It was not just the discontented poor of the south that threatened the stability of the regime. Many adherents of Mazzini and Garibaldi felt betrayed by the state that had emerged. Austria might still hope to restore her position in Italy. And the Church, still headed by Pius IX, condemned the new state and all that it stood for.
In these conditions the state had to struggle to survive. In many areas the masses spoke Latin dialects other than Italian: the former "Tuscan" Latin dialect that had become accepted as a literary language since the middle ages due to the impressive creativity of Dante and others. When Italy unified in the s the question of languages other than Italian was never much considered several regional dialects continue to survive as 'household' languages and the administrative model chosen was designed to annex a dispersed and disconnected plethora of pretty states to Piedmont.
The national state that emerged was centralized but weak -- precisely what might have been expected - other things being equal - to give rise to waves of peripheral resentments and mobilizations. Liberal doctrine also demanded that the laws and practices be standardized throughout the land. Piedmontese officials, bringing with them new laws and practices that inadvertently undermined the economy of the south. In the event the several states that now newly came under the sovereignty of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Italy did so under the existing Piedmontese constitution, under existing Piedmontese laws and existing Piedmontese foreign policy arrangements.
There were cases of resentment, in the south particularly, of the way Piedmontese organisers were deployed in rearranging aspects of the functioning of the territories newly under the House of Savoy. Mazzini, who had remained committed to his republicanism, died at Pisa on 10 March At this time he was illegally present, and living under an assumed name, on Italian soil, and was regarded as an outlaw for attempting insurrection against the king.
Cardinal Secretary of State Antonelli informed Odo Russell, a quasi official British representative in Rome, that his demise might allow the relaxation of some of the restraints that Cavour had placed on Italian Republicanism. Since these times Italians have sometimes tended to characterise Cavour as being the "brain" of Italian Unification - with Garibaldi being sometimes characterised as its "sword" and Mazzini as its "spirit".